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Car Induction System Overview

Time:2019-03-14 05:14Turbochargers information Click:

air filters Induction System

Forced Induction is a term normally associated with turbo-chargers (turbo´s) and supercharged engines. The main aim of these devices is to increase engine power, engine efficiency and some times emissions, with minimal engine redesign and normally small weight gains.

Normally a set amount of fuel will yield a maximum amount of power, to increase power more fuel will need to be burnt in the engine. As a engine can normally only take in a set amount of air at normal atmospheric pressure, to raise power the air intake needs to be increased. Forced induction is basically a way of getting more compressed air into the combustion chamber.

Strengths and weaknesses vary depending on the type of forced Induction application used and the desired aims and goals trying to be achieved. But essentially the aim for both of these devices is to compress the air to higher then atmospheric levels, resulting in a higher oxygen levels.

Super Chargers:

Superchargers can come in a number of different designs and are mechanical driven units. These can be Belt, Direct Drive, Gear Drive, Chain Drive and Electrical Drive driven systems.

Essentially by using a certain amount of power to drive a compressor, gains in power can be achieved with minimum weight gains compared to increasing the size of the engine.

Also adding a Supercharger is more straight forward then a Turbocharger installation due to no engineering work needed to the exhaust system. Also service maintenance for these units are less extensive. Instant throttle response and the most cost effective increase in power are achieved with these units.

Also the Supercharger used will need engine power to actually run, for instants a standard 100 Bhp engine might produce 150 Bhp with a Supercharger installation. But the Supercharger might consume 25 Bhp to run, reducing in a Net 25Bhp gain. This results in higher fuel consumption and will only be effective where throttle response and power are the main considerations. Drag racing is a good example.

There are two types of units used commonly in most production cars Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Superchargers.


Centrifugal Super Chargers:

Car Induction System Overview


Centrifugal Superchargers provide power gains by increasing volumetric air intake to more then atmospheric pressure. With more compressed air entering the combustion chamber, more fuel can be added resulting in a increase in engine power.

This type of Supercharger will result in more boost and power gains higher up in the engines Rpm range, resulting with maximum power at the top of the Rev range. Little to no power gains are likely to happen lower down the engine Rev range, so careful application will be required.

Fuel efficiency is not affected as much as in a Positive Displacement applications, due to the fact the unit doesn't come into effect until higher in the power band.

A centrifugal supercharger, could be viewed as a turbo-chargers connected with a belt to some extent, but of course being driven by the engine and not exhaust gases.



Positive Displacement Super Chargers:

Car Induction System Overview


Positive Displacement Superchargers different from Centrifugal set ups, by delivering a more broad power distribution across the entire Engine Rev range. With the majority of power delivery in the lower to Mid range engine Rev range. Their is a more direct feel in terms of throttle response and no need to wait for any lag or spooling up.

Using engine torque generated from the rotational mass of the internal crank pulley to drive the Supercharger mechanically, this is connected to a air compressor. The Super-charger actually takes engine power to work, but produces an increase in power as a result.

Due to the fact a Supercharger is directly linked to the engine, power gains can be achieved through out the usable RPM range. Positive Displacement Supercharger will yield more efficiency lower down the Rev range compared to other types and designs. 



Turbo Chargers:

Car Induction System Overview


Another one of the methods to boost engine power is called a Turbocharger (turbo). It uses exhaust gases exiting the engine to drive a set of propeller fins or a turbine to increase volumetric air intake pressures. More air at a greater pressure equals more fuel being efficiently burnt and more power produced by the engine.

A turbocharger relies on the volume and velocity of exhaust gases to spool, or spin the turbine wheel and this is effectively more power being produced from otherwise wasted exhaust gas energy. The higher the gas flow, the more the air is compressed and larger power gains are achieved.

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