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Motor vehicle manufacturers of Spain(2)

Time:2012-09-28 09:51Turbochargers information Click:

motor Vehicle Manufacturers Sp

136FASA-Renault

137List of Spanish cars

138Lube Motorcycles

139Automotive industry in Spain

140Lourenço da Veiga

141Andrea Larini

142Miguel Freitas

143Michaël Rossi

144Derbi

145Mazel Group Engineering

146Jean-Marie Clairet

147Uro (trucks)

148Anting

149New Stanton, Pennsylvania

150David (car)

151Biscúter

152Autolatina

153America (automobile)

154Anglada

155Avia Vehicles

156Volkswagen Audi Group AMB Engine

157Volkswagen D24 engine

158Tramontana (sports car)

159Volkswagen D24T engine

160Volkswagen D24TIC engine

161Irizar

162Otro Ford

163Barreiros (manufacturer)

164MWM International Motores

165Elizalde (automobile)

166Hispano Aleman

167Scania Arena

1682008 SEAT León Eurocup season

1692009 SEAT León Eurocup season

170General Motors Europe

171Kapi (car)

172Izaro

173Eucort

174AFA (automobile)

175Abadal

176Volkswagen India

177El Fenix (automobile)

178Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant

179Gábor Wéber

SEAT, S.A. is a Spanish automobile manufacturer founded on May 9, 1950 by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI) of Spain, currently a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Volkswagen Group as a member of the now-defunct Audi Brand Group, together with Audi and Lamborghini, and marketed as a car maker with a youthful sporty profile. Within the Volkswagen Group and under the Audi Brand Group, the SEAT brand itself has been developed as a group with subsidiary companies (SEAT Group) and 'SEAT, S. ~ Scania Aktiebolag (publ), commonly referred to as Scania AB or just Scania, is a global automotive industry manufacturer of commercial vehicles - specifically heavy trucks and buses. It also manufactures diesel engines for motive power of heavy vehicles, marine, and general industrial applications. Founded in 1891 in Södertälje, Sweden, the company's head office is still in the city. Today, Scania has ten production facilities in Sweden, France, Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil, Poland, and Russia. ~ quattro GmbH is a wholly owned private subsidiary of the German automobile manufacturer AUDI AG, part of the larger German automotive business Konzern, Volkswagen Group. Founded in October 1983, it primarily specialises in producing high performance Audi cars and components, along with purchaser specified customisations. The company takes its name as a homage to Audi's original four-wheel drive rally-inspired road car – the Audi Quattro, and as part of bowing to that homage, always spells its 'quattro GmbH' name with a leading lower-case \"q\". ~ List of Volkswagen Group petrol engines. The spark-ignition petrol engines listed below are currently being installed by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles, along with Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, of the German automotive industry business Konzern, Volkswagen Group. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water cooled. ~ List of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines. The compression-ignition diesel engines listed below were formerly installed in various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles, along with marine engine - Volkswagen Marine and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, of the German automotive industry business Konzern, Volkswagen Group, but are now discontinued. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water cooled. ~ This list of Volkswagen Group factories details the current and former automotive engineering manufacturing facilities operated by the automotive industry business Konzern Volkswagen Group, and its subsidiaries. These include its mainstream marques of Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, SEAT, Škoda and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, along with their premium marques of Lamborghini, Bentley, and Bugatti, and also includes plants of their major controlling interest in the Swedish truck-maker Scania. ~ List of discontinued Volkswagen Group petrol engines. The spark-ignition petrol engines listed below were formerly installed in various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles, along with Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, of the German automotive industry business Konzern, Volkswagen Group, but are now discontinued. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water cooled. ~ List of Volkswagen Group Diesel engines. The compression-ignition diesel engines listed below are currently being installed by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles, along with marine engine - Volkswagen Marine and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications, of the German automotive industry business Konzern, Volkswagen Group. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water cooled. ~ The German automotive manufacturing business Konzern, Volkswagen Group has, since the 1970s, developed a series of shared automobile platforms for their motor vehicles. Originally, these were identified using a simple alphanumeric system. The first letter prefix indicates the car classification or physical size (A, B, C or D - for 'traditional' cars); followed by a number to enumerate different generations of the same class. ~ The SEAT León is a small family car built by the Spanish car manufacturer, and Volkswagen Group subsidiary SEAT, S.A. since October 1998. Both León generations are, or have been built upon two differing variants of the Volkswagen Group A platform, and they also share many other components with the Volkswagen Golf, Volkswagen Jetta, Audi TT, Audi A3 and Škoda Octavia. ~ The SEAT Ibiza is a car in the European supermini class, constructed by the Spanish car maker SEAT S.A. , is SEAT's best-selling car and perhaps the most popular model in the Spanish firm's range. The name Ibiza itself comes from the Spanish island of Ibiza, and its use in SEAT's supermini car inaugurated the firm's new nomenclature in naming models after Spanish locations. It was introduced in the 1984 Paris Motor Show as the first car developed by SEAT as an independent company, though it was designed by SEAT S. ~ The SEAT 133 was a small rear-engine car designed and sold by SEAT in Spain from 1974 to 1979. The car used the chassis and engine of the by then defunct Fiat/SEAT 850 and featured a new body in the style of the contemporary, somewhat smaller and only indirectly related Fiat 126. The car was first exhibited at the Barcelona Motor Show in May 1974. Noteworthy at that time was the compression ratio of only 8:1, which permitted the car to run on 85 octane petrol/gasoline.5 ~ The Fiat 131, additionally called \"Mirafiori\", is a small/medium family car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Fiat from 1974 to 1984. It was exhibited at 1974 Turin Motor Show. The 131 was the replacement for the successful Fiat 124, and available as a 2-door and 4-door saloon and 5-door estate. The 131 was given the Mirafiori name after the Turin suburb where the cars were produced. Naming the car in this way marked a break with the former Fiat convention, established in the 1960s, of naming their mainstream models only with a three digit number, and it set the pattern for Fiat to adopt Anglo-American style car naming practice, with carefully chosen names for subsequent new models.4 ~ s, gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke petrol engines. The petrol/gasoline is highly pressurised, and injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder, as opposed to conventional multi-point fuel injection that happens in the intake tract, or cylinder port. In some applications, gasoline direct injection enables a stratified fuel charge combustion for improved fuel efficiency, and reduced emission levels at low load. ~ The Fiat 127 is a supermini produced by the Italian automaker Fiat between 1971 and 1983. It was introduced in 1971 as the replacement for the Fiat 850. Production of the 127 in Italy ended in 1983 following the introduction of its replacement, the Fiat Uno. ~ The Fiat Ritmo is an automobile from the Italian manufacturer Fiat, launched in 1978. Styled by Bertone of Italy, it was seen by some as the most distinctive looking small family car in Europe on its launch in 1978 Turin Motorshow. It was badged in Britain, Canada and the U.S. as the Fiat Strada. During its production which ran from 1978 to 1988, a total of 1,790,000 units were made.p ~ TDI or Turbocharged Direct Injection is a design of turbodiesel engines, which feature turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection, developed and produced by Volkswagen Group. These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles produced by the company (particularly those sold in Europe). They are also used in marine engine - Volkswagen Marine, and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications. ~ The Fiat 124 is a mid-sized family car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1966 and 1974. It was the replacement of the Fiat 1300 and Fiat 1500. Today it is perhaps best known as the car used as the basis for the Russian-built Lada, which continues in production to the present day beyond the 124's discontinuation in 1974. Thanks in part to the ubiquity of the Lada version in Eastern Europe, the 124 has achieved iconic status, and if Lada production is aggregated onto the original Fiat production run, the 124 and its various clones is one of the biggest selling automotive designs of all time - with over 15 million units sold worldwide. ~ The SEAT Toledo is an automobile built and marketed by Spanish automaker SEAT, part of Volkswagen Group. The Toledo name was first introduced to the SEAT line-up in May 1991, with the third and more recent generation was introduced in late 2004 as a 2005 model year car. ~ The SDI engine is a design of naturally-aspirated (NA) direct injection diesel engine developed and produced by Volkswagen Group for use in cars and vans, along with marine engine and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications. The SDI brand name was adopted in order to differentiate between earlier and less efficient indirect injection engines, called SD or \"Suction Diesel\", which were also produced by Volkswagen Group. ~ Unit Injector (abbrev. UI) is an integrated direct fuel injection system for diesel engines; combining the injector nozzle and the injection pump in a single component, the pump of which is, usually, driven by a shared camshaft. ~ The SEAT Marbella was a badge-engineered Fiat Panda (1983-86 \"Mark I\" model), produced by SEAT from 1986 until 1998 in the company's Zona Franca plant in Spain, signalising by the end of its own production in 1998 the end of vehicle production in that specific factory . Previously, the model was called SEAT Panda and was a direct clone of the Fiat Panda model, but its name and some parts had to be changed because of a break in the relationship with Fiat. ~ The SEAT Exeo (pronounced 'ex-AY-o') is a five-seat mid-size car, and flagship model, built by the Spanish car manufacturer, and Volkswagen Group subsidiary SEAT, S.A. , with factory production commencing in December 2008. Previously codenamed Bolero (though not to be confused with SEATs concept car bearing the same name) and internally designated Typ 3R, the name Exeo derives from the Latin word exire, meaning \"to go beyond\", breaking SEAT's recent tradition to name its cars after Spanish cities. ~ The SEAT Málaga is a four-door saloon produced by Spanish automaker SEAT from 1985 to 1992. It can be considered a saloon variant of the first-generation SEAT Ibiza hatchback, which was launched the same year. The underpinnings of both the Málaga and the Ibiza were based upon those of the SEAT Ronda, a rebadged version of the Fiat Ritmo. In this sense the Málaga most closely resembled the Fiat Regata, Fiat's own saloon version of the Ritmo. ~ Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), literally National Institute of Industry, is a Spanish state-owned industrial holding company. ~ The SEAT Fura is a supermini produced by Spanish automaker SEAT from 1981 to 1986. The Fura is a rebadged version of the Fiat 127, available in three and five-door hatchback bodystyles. Once the license expired, SEAT developed a new version, the SEAT Fura Dos, that doesn't differ much from its predecessor. It was produced until 1986. The launch of the SEAT Ibiza MK1 in 1984 made the car redundant. For about 1–2 years the 3-door cars were competing internally within the company and the Fura had to go. ~ The SEAT Córdoba is the saloon, estate and coupé version of the supermini SEAT Ibiza, built by Spanish automaker SEAT since 1993. SEAT's official rally car from 1998 to 2000 was based on the Córdoba (the SEAT Córdoba WRC), and featured a 2.0L turbocharged engine. ~ The SEAT Ronda is a small family car produced by Spanish automaker SEAT ~ The SEAT Altea is a compact MPV produced by Spanish automaker SEAT, S.A. and named after Altea, Spain. The vehicle was designed by the Italian Walter de'Silva and launched in 2004 as the first example of SEAT's new corporate look. The current Toledo is identical, except for the addition of a larger boot. Another extended version, the Altea XL is also available (having been first presented at the 2006 Paris Motor Show). ~ The Direct-Shift Gearbox, commonly abbreviated to DSG, is an electronically controlled dual clutch multiple-shaft manual gearbox, in a transaxle design - without a conventional clutch pedal, and with full automatic, or semi-manual control. The first actual Dual Clutch transmissions arrived from Porsche in-house development for 962 racing cars in the 80's. In simple terms, it is two separate manual gearboxes (and clutches), contained within one housing, and working as one unit. ~ The SEAT León Eurocup is a one-make touring car racing series which uses SEAT Leóns, run by SEAT Sport. ~ The Seat 132 is a four door rear wheel drive notchback saloon assembled in Barcelona's zona franca, and sold by SEAT between 1973 and 1982. For the important taxi market, the 132 filled the niche vacated with the withdrawal in 1970 of the diesel engined SEAT 1500, the 132 being usefully larger than the SEAT 124 which was SEAT's largest model during the early 1970s. SEAT's new car shared its body with the Fiat 132 ~ ETKA is the official electronic parts catalogue (EPC) for Volkswagen Group motor vehicles. Launched in 1989, ETKA superseded the older parts books and microfilm-based catalogues. ETKA is an abbreviation from the German: Elektronischer Teilekatalog. It is produced for Volkswagen AG by the Munich-based specialist automotive industry informations systems software publisher LexCom Informationssysteme GmbH. ~ This list of Volkswagen Group engines includes internal combustion engine articles and related technologies produced by the German automotive industry business Konzern, Volkswagen Group. ~ This list of North American Volkswagen engines details internal combustion engines found in the Volkswagen Passenger Cars and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles marques, as sold in the North American markets. Volkswagen Group engines are not widely known by \"engine families\" in the same way some other manufacturers do. VW Group engines are commonly known by the type of fuel they use, their displacement, and their rated motive power output. ~ The SEAT Alhambra is a large 7-seat MPV by the Volkswagen Group, sold under the SEAT brand. The Alhambra already spans two generations since 1996, and both of them are built at the Palmela-AutoEuropa site in Portugal. It takes its name from the Alhambra of Granada, one of the most famous monuments in Spain. ~ The SEAT Inca (Typ 9K) is a panel van, manufactured between 1996 and 2003. It was designed and assembled in Spain by SEAT, S.A. , and based upon the SEAT Ibiza Mk2 (which in-turn was based on the Volkswagen Polo Mk3 platform), with which it shared its chassis and front body panels. Its VW stablemate was badge-engineered with the name Volkswagen Caddy, and was identical in every respect apart from some (easily interchangeable) branding logos, and front grille. ~ BlueMotion is a tradename for certain car models from the Volkswagen Group with an emphasis on higher fuel efficiency. Volkswagen introduced the name in 2006 on the Mk4 Polo BlueMotion, and in 2007 a version based on the current Passat was released. More recently, the technology has been used in SEAT's models like the SEAT Ibiza or the SEAT León under the name 'EcoMotive, and in the Škoda Fabia and Superb, where the technology is called \"GreenLine\". ~ The SEAT 600 (Seiscientos, also nicknamed pelotilla, seílla or seíta) was a Spanish car made by SEAT from 1957 to 1973. It helped to start the economic recovery after the hard years following the Spanish Civil War. It was a relatively inexpensive vehicle and was the first car within the modest economic capabilities of many Spanish families of the mid and late 1960s. The SEAT company was born as a joint venture of the Spanish government and Fiat, and almost all SEAT models up to 1982 were license-built Fiats although the 1200/1430 Sport \"Bocanegra\" and 133 were models created by SEAT in the 1970s. ~ The SEAT Arosa (Typ 6H) is a city car from the Spanish automaker SEAT, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group, built between 1997 and 2005. The first generation was in production between 1997 and 1999. The second generation was launched in late 1999, and was in production until 2005. ~ VAG-COM, now officially known as VCDS (an acronym for \"VAG-COM Diagnostic System\"), is a third party Microsoft Windows-based software package, developed and produced by Ross-Tech, LLC since May 2000. It is primarily used for diagnostics and adjustments of Volkswagen Group motor vehicles, including Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, SEAT, and Škoda automobiles, along with Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. ~ The SEAT Altea XL is an 18.7 centimetres longer variant of the normal SEAT Altea, a five-door five-seat compact multi-purpose vehicle (MPV), with increased luggage capacity compared to the standard Altea. The SEAT Altea Freetrack is dimensionally similar to the Altea XL, but is designed as compact sport-utility vehicle (SUV). It features raised suspension for increased ground clearance and larger plastic bumpers, and plastic wheel arch and sill extensions - which all increase its exterior dimensions. ~ The Digifant engine management system is an electronic engine control unit (ECU), which monitors and controls the fuel injection and ignition systems in petrol engines, designed by Volkswagen Group, in cooperation with Robert Bosch GmbH. Digifant is the outgrowth of the Digijet fuel injection system first used on water-cooled Volkswagen A2 platform-based models.2 ~ The SEAT 1500 was a Spanish-built 6-seater model of saloon and estate cars, based on the Italian Fiat 1800. The 1500 was the successor to the SEAT 1400 C: it was manufactured between 1963 and 1970, with the five door estate (\"Familiar\") version arriving in 1965. Apart from the larger engine, differences between the 1500 and the C version of its predecessor were limited to such minor details as a speedometer that now read up to 140 km/h (87 mph). ~ The SEAT 1400 was the first car produced by SEAT, it was a rebranded Fiat 1400, itself Fiat’s first integrated chassis model. The car was a small four door sedan: components were shipped as CKD kits from Italy and assembled by SEAT at their new plant in Barcelona's Zona Franca between 1953 and 1964. ~ The Volkswagen Electronics Research Laboratory (VWERL) is a division of the Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. , with its headquarters in Silicon Valley. The VWERL's slogan Technology to the People! indicates its mission: to leverage Silicon Valley resources for the advancement of the Volkswagen Groups' products through technical knowledge and electronics expertise. The VWERL has recently received media attention surrounding its joint victory with Stanford University in the DARPA Grand Challenge, a prize competition for driverless cars. ~ Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited is the wholly owned subsidiary of Volkswagen Group in India. Its operations are spearheaded by two of Group division companies: Volkswagen India Private Limited and Audi India. They focus on manufacture and sales of Volkswagen and Audi vehicles in India. ~ The SEAT Salsa is a concept car presented at the 2000 Geneva Motor Show, as a foretaste of SEAT's new design line under Walter de'Silva. Featuring a three-door coupé body style, it is powered by a 250 PS (180 kW; 250 hp) 2.8L 24 valve V6 engine. The SEAT Salsa was described as a Multi Driving concept car, because its driver could select through a dashboard switch several driving modes (sport, comfort, city) thus modifying not only the engine and the gearbox parameters but also the driving position, the interior lighting or even the layout of the dashboard. ~ The SEAT 850 was a car based upon the Fiat 850. It had 2 and 4-door versions. The 2-door was very similar to the Italian car, but the 4-door version was unique for Seat. The car was produced in Spain from 1966 to 1974 and it was quite popular in that time. After Fiat 850 production ceased in 1972, the Seat version was sold in European countries through Fiat dealers for a couple of years. These cars had a Fiat badge which had \"costruzione SEAT\" underneath it. ~ The SEAT 128 was a 2-door hatchback coupé version of a Fiat 128. In Spain, only the two-door hatchback version was available with two engine options, the 1.2L and the more powerful and well-known 1430 engine. The design of the SEAT 128 was made in Spain by SEAT engineers, and the car was aimed at rich, young drivers, but despite its nice looks, the 128 never enjoyed great commercial success, since most people opted for the smaller, less expensive SEAT 127. ~ The SEAT Tango is a concept car presented at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show. Featuring a two-door two-seater roadster body style, it is powered by a 180 PS (130 kW; 180 hp) version of Volkswagen Group's 1.8L 20VT engine which transmits the horsepower to the front wheels. In the project are also integrated extensive safety measures: it is not only the case of the progressive deformation structure or even the central passenger cell which help to cushion the impact, but also the twin front airbags, the side airbags, the Antilock Braking System, the Electronic Stability Control and Traction Control systems. ~ The SEAT Tribu is a compact crossover SUV anticipated to be built by the Spanish automaker SEAT, S.A. . ~ The SEAT Concepto T Coupé as well as the SEAT Concepto T Cabrio are prototypes developed by the Spanish car maker SEAT, aiming to show the company's potential - under Volkswagen Group's ownership - over focusing on the creation of coupé and convertible body style vehicles. Both may have been the basis of the SEAT Toledo Coupé and SEAT Toledo Cabriolet internal projects, that never made it to come into production. ~ The SEAT León Twin drive concept car is an electrically-driven vehicle prototype presented at the SEAT Martorell facilities on May 2009 in front of Spanish officials as well as members of Volkswagen’s Executive committee, based on a second generation SEAT León that features modified gearbox, power braking, heating and cooling systems. Ever since, the León Twin drive concept car has made its presence in various motor shows and exhibitions demonstrating the evolution of the Twin drive hybrid technology development project in SEAT's Technical Centre in Martorell. ~ SEAT Sport is the motorsport division of the Spanish automobile manufacturer SEAT, founded in 1985 . It has competed in rallying and touring car racing, and also develops high performance versions of road cars. ~ The SEAT Fórmula is a concept car developed by Spanish carmaker SEAT and designed by Julian Thompson. The name Fórmula itself derives from the brand's heritage from the past, as a reminding of the creation of the spanish Fórmula Nacional race tracks back in the '60s, when SEAT started its implication in motorsport activities . The first concept for the car was shown at the 1999 Geneva Salon international de l' auto, featuring a 240 hp engine and able to reach 235 km/h . ~ SEAT Bocanegra is a supermini concept car, built by Spanish automaker SEAT. It was presented at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show. The Seat Bocanegra (Spanish for \"Black Mouth\") is a three-door supermini that is designed by former Lamborghini designer Luc Donckerwolke. It sports a more aggressive image, with the whole front bumper made out of black plastic (hence the name, tracing back to a 1970s SEAT model, the SEAT 1200 Sport, which was nicknamed Bocanegra because of its black plastic front end), with the headlights encased in clear perspex. ~ The SEAT Proto T (1989), the SEAT Proto C (1990) and the SEAT Proto TL (1990) are all concept cars designed for SEAT by Giorgetto Giugiaro's Italdesign. ~ The SEAT Bolero 330 BT is a concept car presented at the 1998 Geneva Salon International de l’Auto . It is featuring a four-seater, four-door sports-coupé inspired family saloon (sedan) car body style. The \"330 BT\" is derrived from the power output of 330 PS. ~ The SEAT León Supercopa is a one-make racing series, organised by SEAT Sport, the motorsport division of Spanish car manufacturer SEAT. It uses a modified version of the SEAT León road car, and championships are currently run in Spain, Germany, Italy and France. Championships have previously been run in the United Kingdom, Turkey and Hungary. File:Mat Jackson 2006 SEAT Cupra Oulton Park. jpg The original Mk1 Cupra R model. ~ The Seat Cupra GT is a concept car made by car manufacturer SEAT and introduced at the 2003 Barcelona Motor Show. SEAT worked with SEAT Sport to design the racer with the essence of the Salsa and Tango concept cars. Although it's a sports car, it is powered by a small 3 litre V6 engine. SEAT designers have ensured that the car has a high level of safety, even at speeds of 295 km/h (183 mph)—the car's top speed. ~ The SEAT 1200 Sport is a 2-door coupé produced by SEAT from 1975 to 1979. It was based upon the underpinnings of a Fiat 127, but with the bigger 1197 cc engine of 67 PS (49 kW) from the SEAT 124, which in this application was transversely mounted and canted forwards by 16°. This engine gave the little 2+2 a top speed of 157 km/h (98 mph). Despite its sporting aspirations, power output was limited by a relatively low compression ratio, reflecting the fuel octanes available on its home market. ~ The SEAT 1430 was a 4-door sedan made by SEAT in Spain from 1969 to 1977. The car shared the body and underpinnings of a 124, but the front lights were square instead of round. It was superseded by the Seat 131, while the donor car, the Seat/Fiat 124 continued in its base form until 1980. ~ The Volkswagen air cooled engine is one of the most widely used and versatile internal combustion engines in the world. Variations of this engine were produced by Volkswagen plants around the world from 1936 until 2006. Cast iron cylinders, cast aluminium alloy cylinder heads and pistons, magnesium crankcase, and forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods were hallmarks of the design. ~ The Volkswagen Group New Small Family (NSF) will be a range of ultracompact city cars expected to be launched in early 2011, based on the Volkswagen up! concept cars shown at 2007's Frankfurt and Tokyo motor shows. Although the up! concept car had a rear-engine design, the NSF's platform will be front-engined, according to reports, in order to reduce investment costs. The range will consist of a short wheelbase three-door hatchback and a longer wheelbase five-door version. ~ The G-Lader is a scroll-type supercharger used in various Volkswagen Passenger Cars models. Its purpose is to increase the motive power output from the internal combustion engine attainable with a given engine displacement. Since it is not enough to simply inject more fuel, as this produces too rich an air-fuel mixture, more intake air has to be added at the same time. This can be achieved with an exhaust-driven turbocharger, or a crankshaft-driven positive displacement compressor. ~ The Volkswagen Transporter series, also referred to as the Volkswagen Group T platform series, refers to several generations of motor vehicles from Volkswagen Group, starting with the original Volkswagen Type 2. These vehicles are traditionally in the light commercial vehicle sector; and comprise vans, minivans, minibuses, pick-ups, campervans, and other derived vehicles, spanning over 60 years of production from 1950. ~ The VR6 engine is an internal combustion engine configuration, consisting of six cylinders. It was developed by the German automotive industry concern, Volkswagen Group in the late 1980s, and evolutions of the original variant are still produced by them today. It is similar to a 'Vee' engine, but with the 'rows' of cylinders offset and tilted from each other by an angle of either 10.6 degrees or 15° - instead of the more common 45°, 60°, or 90° as found on conventional Vee engines. ~ Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen, designed by architect Gunter Henn, and opened in 2002. The original German name is Gläserne Manufaktur (factory made of glass, literally vitreous manufactory). Both the German and English names are a word play on the double meaning of transparent and glassy, referring to both optical transparency and transparency of the production process. ~ The Volkswagen Group MLB platform is one of a range of automobile platforms of the Volkswagen Group. MLB stands for the German Modularer Längsbaukasten, which can be loosely translated as \"Modular Longitudinal Matrix\". It is sometimes also referred to in English as MLP (Modular Longitudinal Platform). This component matrix is intended to allow Volkswagen Group to design a wide variety of longitudinal, front-engined, front-wheel or four-wheel drive models using the same set of components. ~ The Volkswagen wasserboxer is a four cylinder horizontally opposed pushrod overhead valve (OHV) petrol engine developed by Volkswagen. The engine is water-cooled, and takes its name from the German: \"wasserboxer\"; which when translated into English, means \"water-boxer\" - or water-cooled boxer - with 'boxer' being an alternative name for a horizontally opposed engine. It was available in two displacements - either a 1. ~ G60 refers to an inline-four cylinder automobile petrol engine, which uses a specific method of forced induction - by way of a specific type of supercharger. The G60 engine was formerly manufactured by the German carmaker Volkswagen Group, and was installed in a limited number and range of 'hot hatch' cars from their Volkswagen Passenger Cars marque from August 1988 to July 1993. A smaller G40 engine of identical design had earlier been installed in the Mk2 Volkswagen Polo Coupé GT G40 from August 1986 to July 1994. ~ The Volkswagen Group A0 platform is a series of automobile platforms shared among superminis of various marques of the Volkswagen Group ~ The Volkswagen Group A platform is an automobile platform shared among compact and mid-size cars of the Volkswagen Group. It was originally based on the engineering concept of the Volkswagen Golf Mk1, and is applicable to either front- or four-wheel drive vehicles, using only front-mounted transverse engine ~ Walter Maria de’Silva is a car designer from Italy, and currently in charge of all Volkswagen Group design. ~ Scania-Vabis was a Swedish truck and car manufacturer. The company was formed from a merger of Scania with the firm of Vabis in 1911. The car production ended in 1929. The Vabis name being dropped from the trucks in 1968. ~ The Marcus Wallenberg-hallen (Marcus Wallenberg Hall) is a vehicle museum in Södertälje, in the Swedish province of Sörmland. ~ Vabis was a Swedish car and truck manufacturer, founded in 1891 as Vagnfabriks Aktiebolaget i Södertälje in municipality of Södertälje to produce railway cars. The first Vabis automobile (though the name was not applied until after this) was a four-seater designed by Gustaf Erikson in Surahammar in 1897. Strongly resembling a contemporary carriage, it used a one-cylinder kerosene engine, tiller steering, and was not a success. ~ Bultaco was a Spanish manufacturer of two-stroke motorcycles from 1958 to 1983. ~ The EA827 family of petrol engines was introduced in 1974 by Volkswagenwerk AG. This is a very robust water cooled engine configuration for four- up to eight- cylinders, and is still in production. The EA827 is also the base for diesel engines, which share its 88 millimetres cylinder spacing with the spark ignition petrol engines. ~ The Lamborghini V12 is a sixty degree (60°) V12 petrol engine designed by Lamborghini, and was the first internal combustion engine ever produced by the firm. It first entered production in 1963, in 3.5 litre form, displacing 3,465 cubic centimetres, in the Lamborghini 350GT - the first car ever produced by the carmaker. The latest 6.5 litre version is used in all currently produced Lamborghini Murciélago models. ~ Hispano-Suiza was a Spanish luxury automotive and engineering firm, best known for their cars, engines (including world famous aviation engines) and weapons designs in the pre-World War II period. In 1923 the French subsidiary became an autonomous partnership though not totally independent from the parent company, Today they are part of the French SAFRAN Group, while the Spanish company sold all their automotive assets to Enasa, the maker of Pegaso trucks and sport cars, in 1946. ~ Montesa Honda is the Spanish subsidiary of Honda, which assembles several models of motorcycles, bicycles, and parts at its Barcelona plant. The company exports 75 per cent of its production to Europe.. ~ The Lamborghini V8 is a ninety degree (90°) V8 petrol engine designed by Lamborghini, for their less-expensive vehicles. It was only the second internal combustion engine ever developed by the company, and first saw production for the 1971 Lamborghini Urraco. It was designed by Gian Paolo Dallara. The all-aluminium alloy engine was introduced as a 2.5 litre variant, displacing 2,463 cubic centimetres, but was expanded, by increasing the piston stroke to a 3. ~ Saab-Scania AB was the name chosen when truck and bus manufacturer Scania-Vabis of Södertälje merged with car and aeroplane manufacturer Saab AB of Trollhättan in 1968, under the Wallenberg family group of companies. The merger meant that Saab no longer had to import the British Triumph Slant-4 engine, and could instead use the engine production facilities of Scania. In 1972 they started manufacturing the 2. ~ Sherco is a French and Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, specialising in off-road motorbikes. Sherco are best known for their extremely popular trials bikes, although they also make enduro and supermoto bikes. The company was founded in 1998, and currently has two production facilities. A factory in Caldes de Montbui, Spain, some 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Barcelona is where the company's trials bikes are manufactured. ~ The Lamborghini V10 is a ninety degree (90°) V10 petrol engine which was developed for the Lamborghini Gallardo automobile, first sold in 2003. This is only the third internal combustion engine developed by Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. , for use in the Gallardo, and the first engine developed by the company after they were acquired by AUDI AG - part of the Volkswagen Group. As such, it shares components and technology from other members of the group, specifically Audi. ~ The Volkswagen Group C platform is a series of extended midsize automobile platforms from the German automotive concern Volkswagen Group. It has been used for luxury automobiles under the Audi marque. It is the Group's oldest platform, having started with the Audi 100 in 1969. ~ Luc Donckerwolke, (born June 19, 1965) is a Belgian car designer currently Design Director of SEAT. ~ The Volkswagen Group A00 platform is an automobile platform shared among various marques of city cars from the Volkswagen Group. It is based on a shortened A03 platform. ~ The Volkswagen Group MQB platform is one of a range of automobile platforms of the Volkswagen Group. MQB stands for the German Modularer Querbaukasten, which can be loosely translated as \"Modular Transverse Matrix\". This component matrix is intended to allow Volkswagen Group to design a wide variety of transverse, front-engined, front-wheel drive models using the same set of components. Cars based on MQB are expected to range from superminis to large family cars, replacing the current generations of models. ~ Pegaso was a Spanish make of trucks, omnibusses, tractors, armored vehicles, and, for a while, sports cars. The parent company, Enasa, was created in 1946 and based in the old Hispano-Suiza factory, under the direction of the renowned automotive engineer Wifredo Ricart. In 1990, Iveco took over Enasa, and the Pegaso name disappeared in 1994. Enasa, a state-owned company, had its main business interest in the truck and 'bus market. ~ The Volkswagen Group B platform is a mid-size automobile platform from the Volkswagen Group. It has been used for saloon cars/sedans, estate cars/station wagon, and coupés - under the Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, SEAT and Škoda marques over the years. ~ Noge S.L. is a Spanish-based coachbuilder. The company builds bus and coach bodies on various possible chassis. Their products are sold throughout all of Western Europe. Noge was, after Indcar, Ayats and Beulas, the fourth coachbuilding company to be founded in the village of Arbúcies, in the province of Girona, Catalonia. It was established in 1964 by a former Ayats worker, Miquel Genabat Puig (whose son presides the company today) and by Josep Noguera, who dissociated himself from the company in 1978. ~ The Hispano-Suiza J12 was a luxury automobile made by Hispano-Suiza from 1931 to 1938. It replaced the Hispano-Suiza H6. The J12 was powered by a V12 engine with pushrod-operated overhead valves. The engine initially displaced 9.4 L (574 cu in) and delivered 220 hp, but two cars were fitted with long-stroke engines displacing 11.3 L (690 cu in) and delivering 250 hp. Several J12s were later upgraded to the larger engine. ~ Norbert Michelisz (born 8 August 1984 in Mohács) is a Hungarian auto racing driver, who currently competes in the World Touring Car Championship. ~ Gas Gas is a Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, specialising in off-road motorbikes. Gas Gas are best known for their extremely popular trials bikes, although they also make successful enduro and quad bikes. Gas Gas emerged from the financial demise of Bultaco when two agents, Narcis Casas and Josep Piebernat found themselves with a shop but no product to sell. So they embarked on a program to manufacture trials bikes for sale in their shop. ~ The Hispano-Suiza H6 was a luxury automobile from the 1920s. Introduced at the 1919 Paris Motor Show, the H6 was produced until 1933. Roughly 2,350 H6, H6B, and H6C cars were produced in total. The H6 engine featured a straight-six engine inspired by designer Marc Birkigt's work on aircraft engines. It was an all-aluminium engine displacing 6,597 cubic centimetres (403 cu in). Apart from the new overhead camshaft, it was essentially half of Birkigt's aviation V12 design.' ~ Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co. , Ltd. is a joint venture company between Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) established in 1984. The company is headquartered in Anting International Auto City, northwest of Shanghai city, in the People's Republic of China. It has an annual production of 500 000 automobiles. In 2009 the production output was nearly 700 000 cars. The joint venture is made up of equity from (as of 2008) - Volkswagen AG (40%), Volkswagen (China) Invest (10%), SAIC (50%). ~ Wolfgang Josef Egger is a car designer from Germany, and currently an Audi Group head designer. Egger studied Design at the International College of Arts and Sciences in Milan, Italy. In 1989 he graduated as an industrial designer. Egger began his professional career in 1989 in the Design department at Alfa Romeo. In 1993 he was appointed Chief Designer of Alfa Romeo. In 1998 he became Chief Designer at SEAT, where he was able to input his personal style in, for example, the SEAT Ibiza, Cordoba and Altea. ~ The Authi car company of Pamplona, Spain, was founded in 1965 as a result of a collaboration between BMC and NMQ. BMC needed a way to sell their cars in Spain, which at the time had strict rules to protect local automobile manufacturers from imported competitors and to protect local companies from foreign takeover. Thus, Authi built almost identical copies of a range of Austin and Morris cars. The company survived only until 1976 when British Leyland ran out of money and the almost new Authi plant was sold to the SEAT car company after the failure of a bid for it from General Motors. ~ Ossa was a Spanish motorcycle manufacturer which was active from 1924 to 1982, best known for lightweight two-stroke-engined bikes used in Observed Trials and Motocross, was made originally by Orpheo Sincronic Sociedad Anónima (O.S.S.A. ) and later by Maquinaria Cinematográfica, S.A. , founded by Manuel Giró, an industrialist from Barcelona. The brand still remains popular around the world, and particularly in the United States, among enthusiasts from amateurs in historic motorcycle racing to hobbyists and collectors. ~ The 2010 SEAT León Eurocup season will be the third season of the SEAT León Eurocup, a one-make racing series supporting the World Touring Car Championship.2 ~ Tim Alfa Coronel (born 5 April 1972 in Naarden) is a Dutch racing driver. He is the twin brother of World Touring Car Championship driver Tom Coronel. ~ Frédéric Nicolas \"Fredy\" Barth (born 5 December 1979 in Lucerne) is an auto racing driver from Switzerland. ~ Ayats is the trading name of Carrocerías Ayats SA, a Spanish-based coachbuilder. The company constructs a range of coach bodies on a variety of chassis, and also manufacture their own integral products. Their products are used throughout Europe. The company was established in 1905 by Mr. Juan Ayats in Arbúcies, a village in the Selva county of the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. This small town offered the advantage of being in the midst of a densely forested area (\"Selva\" means \"forest\" or \"jungle\" in Catalan), useful since the bodyworks were made of wood at the time. ~ AutoEuropa is a motor vehicle assembly plant, located in the city of Palmela, Portugal. ~ James Nash (born 16 December 1985 in Milton Keynes) is a British auto racing driver. He is currently competing in the British Touring Car Championship. ~ FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Company (zh=一汽-大众汽车) was founded in 1990, as a joint venture between the First Automobile Works (FAW) and Volkswagen Group, creating FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Company, informally abbreviated to FAW-VW. Equity holdings are split as follows: Volkswagen AG with 20%, Audi AG has 10%, Volkswagen (China) Invest 10%, and FAW has the remaining 60%. The main FAW-VW factory is located on the south-western fringes of Changchun, in Jilin Province,second factory is located in Chengdu, Scihuan Province. ~ The Volkswagen Group D platform is a series of automobile platforms from the German concern Volkswagen Group. It has been used for large luxury automobiles. Originally used by the Audi marque, it is also latterly used by the Volkswagen Passenger Cars, and Bentley marques. ~ Ebro trucks was a Spanish brand of light and medium trucks and buses, as well as all-wheel-drive utility vehicles and agricultural tractors, based mainly in Barcelona, Madrid, and Ávila. Ebro parent company, Motor Ibérica, was set up in 1954 to build British-designed Ford trucks under license, Ebro range being based on Ford's Thames Trader. During the late-1960s and early-1970s the company took over four Spanish light vehicle makers: Fadisa,, Aisa, Siata (Seat car derived minivans), and Viasa, in addition to the Spanish branch of Perkins engines. ~ Beulas SAU is a Spanish-based coachbuilder. The company builds a range of coach bodies on a variety of chassis. Their products are sold throughout Europe. ~ The Volkswagen Group PL71 platform is an automobile platform shared among various marques of sport utility vehicles (SUVs). It was co-developed by Volkswagen Group and Porsche AG, and is used by Volkswagen Group for its Audi and Volkswagen Passenger Cars marques. All current platform users are built at Bratislava in Slovakia. ~ Indcar is the trading name of Industrial Carrocera Arbuciense SA, a Spanish-based coachbuilder, specialized in building mini- and midibus bodies mainly on Mercedes-Benz and Iveco vans and truck chassis (although vans from other manufacturers are sometimes also used). Their products are sold throughout all of Western Europe. The company was established in 1888 by Mr. Francesc Queralt Roca in Arbúcies, a village in the Selva county of the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. ~ Sociedad Española de Importación y Distribución de Automóviles (S.E.I.D.A. or, more commonly, Seida) was a Spanish cars and trucks dealer and coachbuilder that later evolved into making integral chassisless motorcoaches, and that in 1998 was subsumed into Evobus. ~ Sociedad Anónima de Vehículos Automoviles (S.A.V.A. ) was a Spanish producer of light and medium commercial vehicles, based in Valladolid. They started in 1957 with a 3-wheeled vehicle, but soon switched to make a Barreiros engined light truck. Later on, they built heavier models based on the British-designed Austin, Morris and BMC commercial series, marketed as Sava, Sava-Austin, or Sava-BMC, including the well-known BMC 'FG' range. ~ Hispano Carrocera SA, based in Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain, is one of the largest manufacturers of bus and coach cabins in Europe. It is a fully owned subsidiary of India's Tata Motors. Tata Motors acquired control of the company in 2005, after purchasing a 21% stake in the company. In 2009, it acquired the remaining 79% from Investalia SA. Apart from their main plant in Zaragoza, Hispano has a second one in Casablanca, Morocco; combined, they have a production capacity of 2,000 units in a year. ~ Ford Europe is the European division of the Ford Motor Company. ~ The Volkswagen Group B-VX62 platform (sometimes called the VX62 platform) is an automobile platform shared among various marques of multi purpose vehicles (MPVs) in the European market from the Volkswagen Group and Ford. It was co-developed by Volkswagen AG and Ford Europe, and is used by Volkswagen Group for its Volkswagen Passenger Cars and SEAT car marques. All B-VX62-based vehicles are built at the joint venture plant AutoEuropa in Portugal. ~ Diego Puyo (born 20 August 1984 in Alcañiz) is an auto racing driver from Spain. ~ Marin Čolak (born 4 March 1984 in Zagreb) is a Croatian auto racing driver. After starting his racing with karting, much of his young career has been spent in Germany, including German Formula Renault and the German SEAT Leon Cupra Cup. He has also competed in some races of the Formula Renault 2000 Eurocup in 2001 and 2002. In 2008 he competed in the new SEAT León Eurocup, where he ended the year as runner-up. ~ Santana Motor S.A. is a Spanish car manufacturer based in Linares, in the province of Jaén, Spain. The company was founded as \"Metalúrgica de Santa Ana, SA\" and originally manufactured agricultural equipment. The company was set up with a start up of just 3 million pesetas following a drive by the Spanish government in 1954 who were offering start-up incentives to local businesses to encourage development in the Andalucia region of Southern Spain. ~ Liam McMillan (born 2 March 1990 in King's Lynn) is a British auto racing driver. For 2009 he is competing in the British Touring Car Championship in a self prepared ex-works SEAT Toledo for his independent family-run Maxtreme Team, which is managed by his father Paul. However, the team never got its engine back after sending it for a refit, forcing them out of the series after just 3 rounds. ~ Eoin Murray is an Irish auto racing driver, born 9 December 1982. After winning the European Alfa Romeo 147 Challenge in 2005, he made his BTCC debut in the middle of 2006. ~ Tom Boardman is a British auto racing driver. His greatest achievement to date is winning the 2005 SEAT Cupra Championship for the Triple R team which he runs with father, John, who was previously a rallycross driver in the 1970s. ~ Massimiliano Pedalà is an Italian auto racing driver. ~ Michal Matějovský (born 20 October 1985 in Hradec Králové) is a Czech auto racing driver. ~ Davide Roda (born 21 January 1972 in Como) is an Italian auto racing driver. His first serious drive came in 2002 when he drove the Italian Alfa 147 Cup. From 2003, he spent the next three years competing in the European Alfa 147 Challenge. In 2006 he drove in the FIA World Touring Car Championship with an independent SEAT Leon. The Seat Sport Italia only managed to fund him and team mate Roberto Colciago for the first four rounds. ~ Oscar Nogués Farré (born 21 May 1978 in Banyeres del Penedès) is a Spanish auto racing driver. He won the Spanish SEAT León Supercopa in 2005 and 2006, and won the inaugural SEAT León Eurocup in 2008. He made one-off appearances in the World Touring Car Championship in 2006, 2007 and 2008 as rewards for his efforts in SEAT one-make series. He came second in the European Touring Car Cup to Michel Nykjaer in 2008. ~ Duarte Maria de Ortigão Ramos Félix da Costa (born May 31, 1985 in Cascais) is a Portuguese auto racing driver. He is the older brother of racing driver António Félix da Costa. ~ Serveta were a Spanish scooter manufacturer who were in production between 1954 and 1989. ~ Rieju is a manufacturer of mopeds and motorcycles from Spain. It is based in Figueras, in Catalonia. They specialize in small displacement motorcycles (between 49 and 450cc), using Minarelli engines. Their products are available in almost all European countries. ~ MotoTrans is a Spanish company which produced motorcycles and scooters between 1957 and 1983 when it was bought by Yamaha. MotoTrans was famous for licensing Ducati engines and using them in MotoTrans motorcycles as well as building Ducati motorcycles incorporating small differences. Grupo Mototrans in Spain is a motor cycle transport company also working in Europe. ~ IPV is a Spanish brand of all-wheel-drive trucks, based in Pontenova, province of Lugo, Spain. IPV parent company, Mafsa, started in 1965 as a joint-venture of three local automotive workshops which had been during years re-conditioning ex-Spanish Civil War light 4x4 trucks, mostly of Italian OM manufacture, and fitting them with diesel engines. First Mafsa product was a narrow-width truck, with a very elementary cab and a choice of Barreiros or Perkins engines, specifically designed for North-western Spain logging industry, and nicknamed carroceta. ~ National Pescara (Nacional Pescara) was a government backed attempt to create a Spanish motor industry. The project was the idea of Raúl Pateras Pescara, and the first car was designed by his brother Enrique. The company was set up in 1929 in Barcelona, and cars went on sale in 1930. The car produced was called the Eight and was a twin cam inline eight cylinder engine with a 3L capacity and 125 bhp (93 kW) driving the rear wheels. ~ FASA-Renault was a Spanish automobile manufacturer which produced Renault and Renault-based vehicles from 1951 to 2000. The company was established in 1951 in Valladolid as FASA (Fabricacion de Automoviles Sociedad Anonima de Valladolid) by Spanish interests, a license having been obtained to allow local production of Renault vehicles. In 1965 Renault increased its shareholding in the company from 15% to 49. ~ This page tries to list every Spanish car ever made, listed by manufacturer. ~ , Lube Motorcycles was a Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, based in Bilbao. Their motorcycles used engines from NSU, another motorcycle manufacturer. ~ In 2009 LLAMA, the automotive industry is generating the 3.5 per cent of Spain's GDP, and gives employment about nine per cent of the working population. Spain has become the fifth country of the world to manufacture cars, but in 2008 and 2009 the production decreased. The reduction tendency started ten years ago, when a government policy was abandoned. The result was the loss of all cars brands and manufacturers, which are now in the hands of foreign companies or closed.8 ~ Lourenço Beirão da Veiga (born 7 September 1979) is a Portuguese auto racing driver. ~ Andrea Larini (born December 2, 1968 in Camaiore) is an Italian auto racing driver. He is the younger brother of fellow racing driver Nicola Larini. ~ Miguel Freitas (born March 2, 1984 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese auto racing driver. ~ Michaël Rossi (born April 12, 1988 in Bélier) is a French racing driver. ~ Derbi is a brand of motorcycles, scooters, and recreational ATVs (quads) produced by Nacional Motor S.A.U. , a Spanish subsidiary of Piaggio & Co. SpA. ~ Mazel Group Engineering is a Barcelona based design studio specialising in concept cars and enginineering solutions.u ~ Jean-Marie Clairet (born October 28, 1966 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French auto racing driver. ~ Uro is a Galician (Spain) brand of all-wheel-drive and military trucks, based in Santiago de Compostela. The Uro parent company, Urovesa, was started in 1981 by a group of ex-IPV employees. They quickly established themselves as a leading player in the 4x4 rural fire-fighting and construction Spanish truck markets. From 1984 on, they became certified provider of the Spanish Army, which currently operates more of a thousand of Uro vehicles, including the well-known URO VAMTAC (Vehículo de Alta Movilidad Táctico / High Mobility Tactical Vehicle), equipped with a 190hp Steyr diesel engine, while most of the other Uro ranges feature Iveco engines. ~ Anting is a town in the Jiading District of Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Pronounced An'ting, the placename means \"The Pavilion of Peace\". Anting is located in the Jiading District (嘉定区) of Shanghai, on the border of the neighbouring province of Jiangsu. It has 52,800 inhabitants and an area of 59.75 km². Anting is one of the centres of the Chinese automotive industry; it is home to Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation and includes the German/Chinese joint venture: Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive. ~ New Stanton is a borough in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,906 at the 2000 census. ~ David was a Spanish company manufacturing cars in Barcelona between 1913 and 1923 and again between 1951 and 1957. The original cars, developed by José Maria Armangué, were cyclecars using either a single cylinder 6–8 hp, or four cylinder 6–8 hp, or 10–12 hp engine; and belt and pulley transmission giving 16 speeds and featuring front wheel brakes. Bodies were usually open two seater but 3 seat and closed versions were also made. ~ Biscúter (Spanish spelling for the pronunciation of Biscooter) was a microcar manufactured in Spain during the mid-20th century. ~ AutoLatina was the name of a joint venture between Volkswagen Group subsidiary Volkswagen do Brasil and Ford Motor Company subsidiary Ford do Brasil in South America. Four divisions - Ford of Argentina, Ford do Brasil (Ford of Brasil), Volkswagen Argentina, and Volkswagen do Brasil - formed AutoLatina in 1987. Volkswagen had 51% of the company and Ford 49%; Volkswagen managed the Car Division, and Ford the Truck Division. ~ The America was a Spanish automobile manufactured in Barcelona from 1917 to 1922. The four-cylinder \"valveless\" model, the \"Tipo A\", had a primitive synchromesh gearbox and worm final drive. The firm's main product was the 1097cc \"Tipo B\"; the \"Tipo C\" was an ohv racing model. ~ Anglada was a Spanish automobile manufactured in Puerto de Santa María in Cádiz, Andalucia from 1902 to 1905. The company named Anglada. Fábrica de bicicletas y automóviles was founded by Francisco Anglada y Gallardo. Anglada made expensive cars by individual order. The cars were either one- or four-cylinder models ranging from 6 to 36 cv. Anglada is notable today, if at all, for producing the first Spanish car purchased by Alfonso XIII; the King bought a 24 hp four from the company in 1904. ~ Avia was the brand name under which the commercial vehicles built by the Spanish Aeronáutica Industrial S. A. (AISA) company were marketed. AISA had been primarily a maker of light aircraft, but in the late 50s turned with some success to light vans, trucks and buses manufacturing, using Perkins Hispania diesel engines. One of the most interesting applications of Avia trucks was the Klöckner Humbolt Deutz Spanish subsidiary designed Avia-Deutz firefighting engine. ~ The AMB series inline 4 cylinder engine was manufactured from 2001 to 2003 by The Volkswagen Audi Group in Ingolstadt, Germany as a replacement to the earlier 1.8T engines such as the APU engine. The AMB engine was used in a variety of Volkswagens and Audis, as well as being used by companies owned by Volkswagen such as the Spanish car manufacturer, SEAT. The engine was available with a wide variety of configurations, being mounted longitudinally in most Audi applications, and horizontally in most other applications. ~ The Volkswagen D24 engine is a 2.4 litre inline-six cylinder (R6/I6), naturally aspirated diesel engine, formerly manufactured by Volkswagen Group from 1978 to 1995. Subsequent forced induction variants of this engine were also available as the Volkswagen D24T engine with a turbocharger, and a turbo intercooled version, the Volkswagen D24TIC engine. These turbocharged variants resulted in higher power and torque outputs. ~ The Tramontana is a Spanish single or twin seat sports car with styling inspired by open wheel racing cars. It is built by Advanced Design Tramontana in Palau de Santa Eulalia, Girona, Catalonia. The price of the car starts about €500,000. It was launched as a concept at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show, and subsequently modified for production. File:Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart. svg 2009 Tramontana R File:Tramontana R. ~ The Volkswagen D24T engine is a 2.4 litre inline-six cylinder (R6/I6) single overhead camshaft (SOHC) diesel engine, formerly manufactured by Volkswagen Group from December 1982 to July 1992. ~ The Volkswagen D24TIC is a 2.4 litre inline-six cylinder (R6/I6) single overhead camshaft (SOHC) diesel engine, formerly manufactured by Volkswagen Group from August 1991 to December 1995. ~ Irizar Group is a Spanish-based builder of luxury coach vehicle bodies, established in 1889. It is located in Ormaiztegi in the Basque Country, Spain. It was formerly a part of the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation. It is the market-leading builder of coach vehicle bodies in Spain (with a market share of over 40%), and ranks second in Europe, its coach bodies being available in many parts of the world. ~ The Otro Ford was a Spanish automobile manufactured from 1922 until 1924. As its name implied, it was heavily based on the Model T Ford, and was similar to the English Maiflower. ~ Barreiros was a Spanish manufacturer of engines, trucks, buses, tractors and automobiles. ~ MWM INTERNATIONAL Motores is is a Brazilian company, specialised in the manufacturing of diesel engines for Latin American automotive applications. MWM is a fully owned subsidiary of Navistar International since 2005. It was formerly known as MWM Motores Diesel Ltda. ~ The Elizalde was a Spanish automobile manufacturer from 1914 until 1928. ~ Hispano Alemán was a Spanish automobile constructor which entered production in 1979. The company built four sports car replicas: Mallorca, Castilla, Vizcaya and BMW 328. ~ Scania Arena is an arena in Duisburg, Germany which was named by Scania, the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer. It is primarily used for ice hockey and is the home arena of EV Duisburg Die Füchse. It opened in 1970 and holds 4,800 people. ~ The 2008 SEAT León Eurocup season was the first season of the SEAT León Eurocup, a one-make racing series supporting the World Touring Car Championship. ~ The 2009 SEAT León Eurocup season was the second season of the SEAT León Eurocup, a one-make racing series supporting the World Touring Car Championship. Hungarian Norbert Michelisz won the championship at the final round at Imola. ~ General Motors Europe (often abbreviated to GM Europe) was responsible for the operation of General Motors Company (\"GM\") businesses in Europe. The division was established by GM in 1986 and operated 14 production and assembly facilities in 9 countries, and employed around 54,500 people. GM's core European brands are Germany-based Opel and UK-based Vauxhall, which sell much the same range of cars in different markets. ~ The Kapi was a Spanish automobile manufactured by Automóviles y Autoscooter Kapi in Barcelona from 1950 until 1955. Designed by Captain Federico Saldaña, the first car was a light three-wheeled two door runabout ~ The Izaro was a Spanish automobile manufactured around 1922. A cyclecar with models ranging from 600 cc to 700 cc, it was a product of Madrid. ~ Eucort (Eusebio Cortes SA) was a Spanish automobile manufacturer based at Barcelona from 1945 till 1953. An attempt at creating a \"popular car\", the first Eucort was based on a prewar DKW design. It featured a 764 cc twin-cylinder two stroke engine. Output of 23.5 bhp (17.5 kW) was claimed for this model. DKW inspriation was also apparent from the front wheel drive layout. The car was available both as a conventionally styled four door sedan and as a three door estate. ~ The AFA was a Spanish automobile manufactured between 1943 and 1944. Little is known about the marque other than that a few 5cv 4 cylinder cabriolets were built by Juan Aymerich Casanovas in Barcelona. ~ The Abadal was a Spanish car manufactured between 1912 and 1923, named after Francisco Abadal. Considered a fast luxury car, it was closely patterned on the Hispano Carrocera and offered in two models. One had a 3104cc four-cylinder engine while the other had a 4521 cc six-cylinder engine. Soon after the inception of the Abadal line, the Belgian company Impéria began building Abadals under license as Impéria-Abadals. ~ Volkswagen India Private Limited is a subsidiary of Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited that assembles, manufactures and distributes Volkswagen vehicles in India. It was established in 2007. ~ The El Fenix was a Spanish automobile manufactured from 1901 until 1904. A product of Barcelona, it was built by Domingo Tamaro Y Roig, who had worked with La Cuadra; he built a few twin-cylinders with gas engines under this name before joining Turcat-Méry in 1904. ~ Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant is a planned automobile assembly plant now under construction in Chattanooga, Tennessee in its Tyner neighborhood. Employment at the plant is expected to be about 2,000. ~ Gábor Wéber is a race car driver born in Hungary who competed in one race of the 2003 Porsche Supercup. Since 2008 he has been competing in the SEAT León Eurocup, and he won the 2010 season with the Zengő-Dension Team. He also is a commentator of the Formula One on Hungarian TV channel RTL Klub.

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